“Wine That Travels” – A Short History of Sherry

(June 2018) It was so exciting to finally arrive in the land of sherry – that famous fabled wine that has traveled the world. We caught an 11:30 flight on Iberia Airlines from Madrid to Jerez, and by 1pm were already departing the small airport in our Hertz rental car. As we drove towards our resort hotel on the ocean just south of Sanlucar, we passed rolling hills covered in bright yellow sunflowers and green verdant vineyards filled with palomino and pedro ximenez grapes.  The blue sky and warm temperatures in the mid 70’s was welcome after the cooler temperatures of Madrid.

After checking into our resort, the Hotel Elba Costa Ballena, my daughter and I headed to the pool and spa, then later out to dinner at a restaurant along the Bajo de Guia in Sanlucar where I ordered a glass of chilled manzanilla sherry (see below).  Gazing out a the bay, I couldn’t help but think of all of the ships carrying sherry that had departed from this port and further south in Cadiz over the centuries.  The history of sherry is one of the most fascinating wine stories in the world.  Following is a brief timeline, based on the history provided by Wines of Sherry.

A Brief Timeline of Sherry History

1100BC – Vines are brought to Spain by the Phoenicians, who called the region “Xera.” Ancient amphora for wine storage have been found near the city of Cadiz.

138BC– Romans come to the region and rename the area “Ceret”. Lucius Columella, born in Cadiz, writes the famous ancient book “De ru Rustica” about how to plant vines and make wine.

100’s BC – Romans began to export the local wine to Rome and other places. It becomes known as the “wine that travels,”  however it was not because it was fortified (distillation was not invented until 800’s). Instead the Romans covered the wine with different substances to protect it from oxygen, such as olive oil, ashes, honey, and resins.

711AD – The Moors come to Spain, and call the area the “Land of Sherish.” Even though the Koran prohibited alcohol, the region was allowed to continue to produce grapes and wine, which was used for raisins to feed the troops and medicine.

800’s – Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan, an Arabic alchemist, designs the alembic pot still to allow distillation of alcohol into spirits. This allowed sherry brandy to be developed, but in the beginning it was primarily used for medicine.

1264 – King Alfonso of Castille reclaims Spain. Exports of sherry wine to England increase when Henry 1 proposes a bartering agreement to trade English wool for sherry. Around the same time, the major grape used to produce sherry was renamed “Palomino” after a military general.

1492 – Sherry voyages to America with Columbus (along with Madeira)

1519 – Magellean sets sail from Sanlucar with “417 wine skins and 257 kegs” of sherry, making sherry the first wine to travel around the world.

1600’s– Sherry begins to be fortified with spirits (brandy) so it will keep better on long sea voyages. The practice is reputed to have been invented by the Dutch and adopted by the British and Portuguese. Sherry, madeira and port benefit greatly from this method.

1770’s  – The solera system is created, based on British consumer desires for a consistent taste and style each year for the different types of sherries. The system also allows the wine to age much longer.

1932 – Sherry achieves DO (Designations of origin) status in Spain

1970’s – Vineyards are overplanted in sherry and prices plummet

2012 to present – There is a resurgence of interest in sherry wines, as international sommeliers and wine buyers rediscover the excellent quality and value of sherry wines. The wide variety of flavors and styles, ranging from bone dry to extremely sweet, makes sherry a very versatile treat!

 

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